Automating Static Website Deployment

In this post I am going to document the steps I took to implement a fully automated deployment of my blog using GitHub Actions and GitHub Pages.

As always, I started my journey with the definition of what I really wanted to get at the end:

One may say that to do what I set out to do I would need to subscribe for a paid account with GitHub since according to their help page GitHub Pages for private repositories are only available on the paid plans.

However, as I pointed out above, it does not make sense to hide the content of the actual static website, hence all I needed to do is to find a way how to “publish” the resulting artefact to the GitHub Pages repository, and, preferably, that “publishing” should happen on GitHub’s side.

Luckily for me, GitHub started to support GitHub Actions on the free plan some time ago and as long as it is not abused according to their terms and conditions, it is a perfect vehicle for what I am trying to do, in my opinion.

Setting up GitHub Pages

There are multiple howtos and tutorials on the Internet regarding how to set GitHub Pages up, including the official help section on this topic, so I will only elaborate on details where I did something specific for the purposes of achieving my goals.

There are different types of GitHub Pages:

The difference between two is subtle (the former requires a dedicated repository for your website, while the latter allows you to keep it in a branch of the existing repository), but for the purposes of this article I am assuming that we are working with the user level GitHub pages which are residing in the repository named “<username>” (where <username> is your GitHub user name) as per the official documentation.

A few caveats I found and spent some time solving after following the official documentation are listed below:

OK, you have your public repository configured the way you want, so let’s look at the settings we need to be able to publish our code to this public repository.

When I try to automate something, I usually start with writing down manual steps I would do to achieve the results. This helps me to see patterns and to understand what I can easily automate and what will require some brain-storming to resolve.

In the case of updating the repository it is quite trivial: if I were to push updates manually, all I need is a private SSH key with the corresponding public SSH key configured with write privileges for the repository and I could push with git push from my local copy of the repository.

… private keys are called “private” for a reason – they are not supposed to leave the device under any circumstances. […] please pay attention when you read of hear somebody advising you to upload your private keys somewhere, it is usually bad advice.

My private keys are called “private” for a reason – they are not supposed to leave my device(s) under any circumstances (except for backup purposes such as storing them in a safe). So, please pay attention when you read or hear somebody advising you to upload your private keys somewhere, it is usually bad advice.

For the integration purposes, GitHub provides so-called “Deploy keys” and “Personal access tokens”. The former is just an SSH key pair associated with a particular repository (you can configure it in repository’s setting) while the latter is an OAuth access token associated with your account.

While you can successfully use both, I would recommend to use the “Deploy keys” only: despite that you can try to scope access down for a personal token, it would not be good enough and the actions performed using that token will look like you are executing them.

To configure a “Deploy key” we need two things:

  1. Generate an SSH key pair, e.g.:

    [user@localhost ~]$ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -N '' -C 'Updating the blog from GH Action' -f ~/gh-action
    Generating public/private ed25519 key pair.
    Your identification has been saved in /home/user/gh-action
    Your public key has been saved in /home/user/
    The key fingerprint is:
    SHA256:7W9pUV5IlrRVE0RAVkjLgKJz4RdtVbH7GKQu8AfYITw Updating the blog from GH Action
    The key's randomart image is:
    +--[ED25519 256]--+
    | o.+BOX*|
    | + o o+.=oo|
    | o E + =oo |
    | o o B . oo o|
    | o S + .o.o |
    | + o. .o.|
    | + oo. .|
    | ++ |
    | o. |

    Here, I chose the ed25519 key type since it is the shortest from the GitHub supported key types at the moment, yet it is strong enough.

    I also made the key pair passphrase-less (-N '') since the purpose of the key pair is to automate things in the unattended fashion and there will be nobody to type in the passphrase.

    The key pair comment just makes it easier to maintain your keys, but is optional.

    Finally, the -f ~/gh-action option specifies where the generated private key is going to be stored. The public counterpart will use the same path with the .pub suffix appended to it.

  2. Set the newly generated public key up as the “Deploy key”:

    All you need to do is to go to the repository settings page for the public repository you created for GitHub Pages, click on “Deploy keys” in the left side menu, then click on the “Add deploy key” button in the upper right corner.

    On the next page, provide a sensible description for the deploy key (I used the same text as I put into the keys comment, i.e. “Updating the blog from GH Action”) and copy and paste the recently generated public key. GitHub does not allow you to upload files over there, so you need to copy the content of the public key file and paste it into the form, e.g.:

    ssh-ed25519 AAAAC3NzaC1lZDI1NTE5AAAAIGHCy+stVCBjsrVO2ld1DwKCwcKL9+i1sjxcZu4u4lFQ Updating the blog from GH Action

    NOTE: You need to ensure that you tick the “Allow write access” checkbox, otherwise it would not be possible to push to the repository with the corresponding private key.

This, actually, concludes the configuration of the GitHub Pages repository for now – in later articles I will document how one could leverage the repository Issues for managing comments on the web site and maintain the counters for likes on the pages, but it would be a completely separate post :).

Setting up the private, code repository

A typical Pelican repository layout is quite simple and comprises one mandatory directory, one semi-mandatory file, and everything else is optional, but could be used to enhance your experience.

The mandatory directory is the so-called “content” directory (in Pelican’s terms). The name of the directory can be anything you want, but it is better be reflected in the PATH = directive of the setting file.

I am saying “better be” since Pelican can operate without any configuration files, but the result will be limited, hence I call the file (which is the default name for the configuration file) to be “semi-mandatory”. The name of the configuration file can be also anything you like, however, I suggest to stick with the default for now.

Basically, you can quickly start by following the Pelican documentation and doing something as follows:

[user@localhost ~]$ virtualenv ~/venv/pelican
created virtual environment in 477ms
creator CPython3Posix(dest=/home/user/venv/pelican, clear=False, global=False)
seeder FromAppData(download=False, pip=latest, setuptools=latest, wheel=latest, via=copy, app_data_dir=/home/user/.local/share/virtualenv/seed-app-data/v1.0.1)
activators BashActivator,CShellActivator,FishActivator,PowerShellActivator,PythonActivator,XonshActivator
[user@localhost ~]$ . ~/venv/pelican/bin/activate
(pelican) $ mkdir ~/blog
(pelican) $ cd ~/blog
(pelican) $ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/user/blog/.git/
(pelican) $ git config --local ""
(pelican) $ git config --local "Joe Happy"
(pelican) $ pelican-quickstart
Welcome to pelican-quickstart v4.2.0.
This script will help you create a new Pelican-based website.
Please answer the following questions so this script can generate the files
needed by Pelican.
> Where do you want to create your new web site? [.]
> What will be the title of this web site? My Awesome Blog
> Who will be the author of this web site? Joe Happy
> What will be the default language of this web site? [en]
> Do you want to specify a URL prefix? e.g., (Y/n) n
> Do you want to enable article pagination? (Y/n)
> How many articles per page do you want? [10]
> What is your time zone? [Europe/Paris] Australia/Melbourne
> Do you want to generate a to automate generation and publishing? (Y/n) n
Done. Your new project is available at /home/user/blog
(pelican) $ ls -l
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 2 user user 4096 May 10 00:31 content
drwxr-xr-x 2 user user 4096 May 10 00:31 output
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 869 May 10 00:31
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 589 May 10 00:31
(pelican) $ rm -rf output
(pelican) $ git add content
(pelican) $ git commit -m 'Initial commit'
[master (root-commit) f077002] Initial commit
1 file changed, 35 insertions(+)
create mode 100644

A short break down of the above session snippet is:

A good test at this stage would be to ensure that Pelican is working and likes our structure:

[user@localhost ~]$ pelican
WARNING: No valid files found in content for the active readers:
| BaseReader (static)
| HTMLReader (htm, html)
| MarkdownReader (md, markdown, mkd, mdown)
| RstReader (rst)
Done: Processed 0 articles, 0 drafts, 0 pages, 0 hidden pages and 0 draft pages in 0.07 seconds.

So far so good, but it is not a real test, since there are no source files to generate something from, so let’s give Pelican something to work on:

[user@localhost ~]$ printf 'Title: First Post\nDate: 2020-05-10\n\n#First post\nPelican is awesome!' > content/
[user@localhost ~]$ pelican
Done: Processed 1 article, 0 drafts, 0 pages, 0 hidden pages and 0 draft pages in 0.12 seconds.
[user@localhost ~]$ elinks -dump output/index.html
[1]My Awesome Blog
• [2]misc
[3]First Post
Published: Sun 10 May 2020
By [4]Joe Happy
In [5]misc.
First post
Pelican is awesome!

The output from elinks was truncated on purpose since I just wanted to showcase that Pelican has indeed generated the structure for a static website from just one article file we created.

Before we push our local repository to GitHub we may want to do some house keeping first, e.g. create the .gitignore file and list the temporary things we do not want Git to track. A good enough version of the .gitignore file I am using for my code repository is the following:


Do not forget to actually commit that .gitignore file to your local repository using the git add .gitignore && git commit -m 'Added .gitignore', by the way.

Now, we need to create a private repository on GitHub, so jump into your browser, go to your GitHub account, press the “+” icon in the upper right corner (right next to your profile icon), and select “New repository”.

On the “Create repository” page put whatever you desire as the name and the description of the repository you are about to create. Ensure that the “Private” radio button is selected and uncheck the “Initialize this repository with a README” if it was checked.

Once the repository is created, you will be presented with a page that enumerates your options for the next step, but I will just go ahead and show a session dump of what you will need to do. In the following session snippet blog is the repository name I chose for my private code repository and you will need to replace it with your private repository name (the working directory is our newly created local repository):

[user@localhost ~]$ git remote add origin
[user@localhost ~]$ git push -u origin master
Enter passphrase for key '/home/user/.ssh/keys/github':
Enumerating objects: 6, done.
Counting objects: 100% (6/6), done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads
Compressing objects: 100% (4/4), done.
Writing objects: 100% (6/6), 1008 bytes | 1008.00 KiB/s, done.
Total 6 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
* [new branch] master -> master
Branch 'master' set up to track remote branch 'master' from 'origin'.

Do you remember how we generated a deploy key pair earlier and installed the public key part into the public blog repository, so GitHub would allow the bearer of the private key to authenticate and deploy changes to the public blog repository? Well, since the purpose of this article is to introduce the full automation, the bearer of the key would be the GitHub Action associated with the private repository, hence we need to provide the action with the private key somehow.

GitHub has a feature called “repository secrets” and it is a perfect candidate to pass the private key to the GitHub Action. We need to follow the official documentation for the feature and create a secret called “DEPLOY_KEY” with the content of the private part of the deploy key. This will be used in the last step of the GitHub Action we are about to define.

Configuring the GitHub Action for publishing

Everything is well and good, but “where is the automation?” you may ask. After all, I suspect this was the primary reason you are reading this post. Well, we are about to start to look into the automation part and it is rather short in comparison to all the steps we did to set repositories up.

Our automation relies on the GitHub Action feature of GitHub. In plain terms, GitHub Action is a free compute resource provided by GitHub (there are some limits, but for the purposes of a personal blog it is unlikely that you will ever hit these limits).

Each GitHub Action is associated with a specific repository and is defined using quite a simple YAML configuration file which instructs GitHub on how to provision a required compute environment and what to run inside that environment. The YAML file can be arbitrarily named and resides in the .github/workflows/ subdirectory (starting from the root of the corresponding repository).

The GitHub Action I am using for my blog web site is stored in .github/workflows/pelican.yml and contains the following (we will dissect it further down the post):

name: Static Website Generator
branches: [ master ]
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
- name: Initialise locale
run: |
if [ "$LANG" != 'C' -a "{$LANG:0:2}" != 'C.' ]; then
CP="${LANG#*.}" && [ -z "$CP" ] && CP=UTF-8 ||:
sudo sed -i -E "/^\s*$LANG(\s|\$)/{:a;n;ba;q};\$a$LANG $CP" /etc/locale.gen
sudo locale-gen
sudo localectl set-locale LANG="${LANG:-C.UTF-8}"
locale -a
- name: Checkout the primary repo
uses: actions/checkout@v2
fetch-depth: 0
submodules: recursive
- name: Restore modification times for content
run: |
git log --pretty=tformat:"%at" --name-status --no-merges -- \
content \
themes/mind-drops/content \
| sed -nE '
/^[AMT]/{s,^\S\s+,,;G;s,^(.+)\n(.+),\2 \1,;p};
s,^(D|[CR][[:digit:]]+)\s+,\1 ,;G;
s,^(\S+) ([^[=\t=]]+[[=\t=]])?(.*)\n(.+),\4\1 \3,;
}' \
| LC_ALL=C sort -k2 -k1rn | uniq -f1 \
| sed -E '/^[[:digit:]]+D /d' \
| while read TSTAMP FILE; do
if [ -f "$FILE" ]; then
echo "$FILE => $(date -d @$TSTAMP)"
touch -m -d "@$TSTAMP" -- "$FILE"
- name: Checkout Pages repo
uses: actions/checkout@v2
repository: galaxy4public/
path: output
- name: Set up Python
uses: actions/setup-python@v2
python-version: 3.x
- name: Install dependencies
run: |
python -m pip install --upgrade pip
pip install -r requirements.txt
- name: Generate the website
run: |
ls -laR content/
rm -rf output/*
ls -la output/
TIMEZONE=$(sed -nE 's|^\s*TIMEZONE\s*=\s*['"'"'"]([^'"'"'"]+)['"'"'"].*|\1|;T;p'
TZ="${TIMEZONE:-UTC}" pelican
- name: Publish to GitHub Pages
DEPLOY_KEY: ${{ secrets.DEPLOY_KEY }}
run: |
cd output
git config --local ""
git config --local "GitHub Action"
if output=$(git status --porcelain) && [ -z "$output" ]; then
echo "No new content was generated, exiting gracefully"
git add -A
git commit -m "Updated content on $(date)"
eval $(ssh-agent)
echo "$DEPLOY_KEY" | ssh-add -t 5m /dev/stdin
ssh-add -l
git push
ssh-add -D
ssh-agent -k
cd ..
echo Completed

This is a copy of my live GitHub Action for deploying my blog that you are most likely reading right now and I decided not to edit anything, so if you just want to re-use it you will need to replace a few things, namely:

Let’s look a bit more closely to understand how this GitHub Action is structured and what each step is doing.

It all starts with the definition of the action itself, the conditions of how it is triggered, and how it runs: you can get a formal description of the YAML structure of this configuration file in the official GitHub documentation on Workflows.

Here, we are only going to focus on steps defined under the “jobs:” section of the file since these steps are defining the logic we are after.

The “Initialise locale” step is quite important for Pelican since with a misconfigured locale Pelican tends to produce incorrect output (which is kind of expected). So in this step we are trying to determine whether the user (us :) ) has supplied the LANG variable and if they did we update /etc/locale.gen file, run the locale-gen command to update the corresponding files, and set the locale of the container to the requested locale.

The “Checkout the primary repo” step is leveraging the official “Checkout V2” Action and checks out a full copy of the source code repository of our blog and all the linked submodules. Initially, I was using a shallow copy using fetch-depth: 1, but the next step was requiring the full repository history to do its job reliably and I changed it to be a full history clone.

Since git does not store timestamps for the files and directories under its control, yet Pelican relies on timestamps to populate the modification time of the artefacts – we need to find a way to reconstruct at least file timestamps after the tree was checked out. One of the possible approaches would be to create a plugin that could determine whether we are inside a git working tree or not and depending on that apply different timestamp extraction policies, but I thought that a much easier way would be to prepare the checked out tree, hence making it compatible with the way Pelican expects things to be.

The “Restore modification times for content” step is my variant of how one could reconstruct the timestamps for files close enough to make it possible to use with Pelican. The approach relies on the fact that git records the timestamp of each commit including adding, updating, and deleting files. We create a list of all these file events using git log for file trees under “content” (where our blog content lives) and “themes/mind-drops/content” (where my custom theme injects some content such as the Web service worker script), then we use sed to filter and to re-arrange the output a bit, followed by reverse sorting to help to remove the entries that were introduced and later deleted. In the end, we have a list of file names with timestamps, so we go through the list in a loop and set the timestamps to files using touch.

The “Checkout Pages repo” step is cloning the public blog repository into the “output” directory where Pelican will put the generated files. This is needed to ensure that we can track the changes to the public repository, since Pelican is careful enough (if not instructed otherwise) only to update the files it generates and leave everything else in place as is. We use this later to determine whether any new content has been generated or not.

The “Set up Python” and the “Install dependencies” steps are pretty generic: the former is using the official GitHub Action to install and configure the latest available version of Python 3.x and the latter is leveraging pip to install all blog’s dependencies (including Pelican itself).

The “Generate the website” step is running pelican to process our articles and pages and to generate the result in the “output” directory. There are a couple of tricks with this step, though.

The first trick, which is not that obvious, is that we are removing the content of the “output” directory. It seems a bit weird since we just checked it out several steps before, does not it? Well, we are removing everything except hidden files and directories which happen to contain the “.git” subdirectory with all the actual data about the repository. Why do we do it? It is simple, this helps us to determine a situation if some file or directory was removed, so we could propagate that knowledge to the public blog repository. If we did not clean up the content of the “output” directory we would only append new changes and would never remove anything – this is how it was before I stumbled upon the problem, by the way. :)

The second trick of the “Generate the website” step is the extraction of the time zone information from the configuration files and is setting the TZ variable correctly just before we call pelican. Without this either Pelican may fail or if it does not it will produce UTC based date and times, which would be undesirable (at least for me, since my time zone is in Australia).

The final step is to push the updated content to the public blog repository, which will make it visible via GitHub Pages. Several things to notice there are:

  1. In the env: section we are setting up the DEPLOY_KEY variable – this syntax is used to retrieve a named secret value from the associated secret key for a repository. We store the private part of the deploy key we specifically generated for this purpose at the beginning of this article in the private repository secret.
  2. git status is used to determine whether there are any changes between what we have in the working tree and the repository index. If no changes were detected we just exit gracefully.
  3. If any change to the generated content was detected, we temporarily load the private part of the deploy key into the ssh-agent (for 5 minutes), push changes to the public blog repository, then clean up the key from the agent and kill the agent itself.

From this point on, any push to the private codebase repository will trigger the GitHub Action and if the change has resulted in any updated content such content will be published to GitHub Pages!

There are quite a few things we could improve: such as introducing a broken links check, doing some sanity checks, etc. – but this would be for another article, I guess. :)